RIGA, Latvia, June 10, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- TOP 9 SIA, the leading market research company in the U.S., today announces the results of a 3-month study about modafinil consumption among academics, executives, and athletes.
83% of the study participants said that they prefer using generic modafinil, as the brand-labeled drug (Provigil) is considered too expensive. The most popular generic versions of modafinil brands were listed as Modalert, Modvigil, Waklert, and Artvigil.
77% of the respondents said they prefer to order generic modafinil in bulk. The most popular package size was listed as 100 tablets, despite the availability of 10, 20, 30, 50, and even up to 500 pills per package, too.
Modafinil is classified as a schedule IV drug in the United States, but given its high availability, 85% of respondents said that they could order modafinil online without a prescription. This is yet another reason its use is more widespread among people who take it off-prescription as a "nootropic" or "smart drug" to improve their cognitive skills.
As modafinil stimulates mental alertness, it often interacts with other medications users may take. These drug interactions may exacerbate patients' underlying medical conditions. This is especially true if patients take this wakefulness-promoter without a valid doctor's prescription.
Intake of modafinil has been previously linked to allergic reactions, chest pain, high blood pressure, etc. Chest pain is the most severe side effect people may experience after taking modafinil. Patients must seek medical attention immediately if they experience any adverse side effects after administering modafinil.
Research suggests that modafinil is relatively safe to use as it has a low potential for abuse. Not a single fatality has been reported due to modafinil overdose. Studies indicate that high-quality modafinil is not only safe to take, but also generally a well-tolerated drug.
Buying modafinil online is not permitted by all countries for various reasons. All of the study respondents reported no legal issues when buying it online as it's intended for self-use and not for distribution to third parties.
Finding reliable online pharmacies to buy modafinil online was cited as one of the most difficult tasks among the study participants. 85% of the respondents said they couldn't get a prescription from their physician to buy modafinil online.
Online vendors typically sell modafinil pills that contain between 100mg and 200mg of the active ingredient. Clinical trials show modafinil as a safe and effective nootropic drug if taken within the recommended dosage (up to 200mg per day).
Almost all pharmaceutical companies use the same formula to make generic version drugs, and modafinil is no exception. There are many pharmaceutical producers that sell generic modafinil under their own brand name, like Modalert, Modvigil, Waklert, Artvigil, etc. 74% of the respondents consider HAB Pharmaceutical and SunPharma as the most trusted generic modafinil manufacturers.
It is worth mentioning that users cannot get modafinil OTC without a prescription in the UK. Moreover, buying modafinil without a prescription is illegal in most European countries. However, possessing the nootropic is a whole different story - it is generally not against the law to possess modafinil for personal use.
"Off-prescription" purchase of modafinil in the UK is allowed, as long as their product is shipped from within the European Economic Area. As cited by the study participants, all the online vendors listed above offer this option.
In other words, it doesn't really matter whether users are looking to order modafinil in the UK, Germany, Spain, or Ireland, they are good to go when getting it from one of the trusted online vendors listed in this article.
Users can buy Provigil (brand name modafinil) from pharmacies in the USA. However, they must have a modafinil prescription from a medical professional to do that as it's not sold over-the-counter in the USA.
In OSA, modafinil is indicated to treat excessive sleepiness and not as treatment for the underlying obstruction. If continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for a patient, a maximal effort to treat with CPAP for an adequate period of time should be made prior to initiating and during treatment with modafinil for excessive sleepiness.
Rare cases of serious or life-threatening rash, including SJS, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), and Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have been reported in adults and children in worldwide postmarketing experience. The reporting rate of TEN and SJS associated with modafinil use, which is generally accepted to be an underestimate due to underreporting, exceeds the background incidence rate. Estimates of the background incidence rate for these serious skin reactions in the general population range between 1 to 2 cases per million-person years.
There are no factors that are known to predict the risk of occurrence or the severity of rash associated with modafinil. Nearly all cases of serious rash associated with modafinil occurred within 1 to 5 weeks after treatment initiation. However, isolated cases have been reported after prolonged treatment (e.g., 3 months). Accordingly, duration of therapy cannot be relied upon as a means to predict the potential risk heralded by the first appearance of a rash.
Although benign rashes also occur with modafinil, it is not possible to reliably predict which rashes will prove to be serious. Accordingly, modafinil should be discontinued at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. Discontinuation of treatment may not prevent a rash from becoming life-threatening or permanently disabling or disfiguring.
Postmarketing adverse reactions associated with the use of modafinil have included mania, delusions, hallucinations, suicidal ideation, and aggression, some resulting in hospitalization. Many, but not all, patients had a prior psychiatric history. One healthy male volunteer developed ideas of reference, paranoid delusions, and auditory hallucinations in association with multiple daily 600 mg doses of modafinil (three times the recommended dose) and sleep deprivation. There was no evidence of psychosis 36 hours after drug discontinuation.
Caution should be exercised when modafinil is given to patients with a history of psychosis, depression, or mania. Consideration should be given to the possible emergence or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms in patients treated with modafinil. If psychiatric symptoms develop in association with modafinil administration, consider discontinuing modafinil.
Table 1 presents the adverse reactions that occurred at a rate of 1% or more and were more frequent in modafinil-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients in the placebo-controlled clinical trials.
In placebo-controlled clinical trials, 74 of the 934 patients (8%) who received modafinil discontinued due to an adverse reaction compared to 3% of patients that received placebo. The most frequent reasons for discontinuation that occurred at a higher rate for modafinil than placebo patients were headache (2%), nausea, anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, chest pain, and nervousness (each
Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis parameters were monitored in the studies. Mean plasma levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were found to be higher following administration of modafinil, but not placebo. Few patients, however, had GGT or AP elevations outside of the normal range. Shifts to higher, but not clinically significantly abnormal, GGT and AP values appeared to increase with time in the population treated with modafinil in the placebo-controlled clinical trials. No differences were apparent in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, or total bilirubin.
The clearance of drugs that are substrates for CYP3A4/5 (e.g., steroidal contraceptives, cyclosporine, midazolam, and triazolam) may be increased by modafinil via induction of metabolic enzymes, which results in lower systemic exposure. Dosage adjustment of these drugs should be considered when these drugs are used concomitantly with modafinil [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The effectiveness of steroidal contraceptives may be reduced when used with modafinil and for one month after discontinuation of therapy. Alternative or concomitant methods of contraception are recommended for patients taking steroidal contraceptives (e.g., ethinyl estradiol) when treated concomitantly with modafinil and for one month after discontinuation of modafinil treatment.
Blood levels of cyclosporine may be reduced when used with modafinil. Monitoring of circulating cyclosporine concentrations and appropriate dosage adjustment for cyclosporine should be considered when used concomitantly with modafinil.
Elimination of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C19 (e.g., phenytoin, diazepam, propranolol, omeprazole, and clomipramine) may be prolonged by modafinil via inhibition of metabolic enzymes, with resultant higher systemic exposure. In individuals deficient in the CYP2D6 enzyme, the levels of CYP2D6 substrates which have ancillary routes of elimination through CYP2C19, such as tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, may be increased by co-administration of modafinil. Dose adjustments of these drugs and other drugs that are substrates for CYP2C19 may be necessary when used concomitantly with modafinil [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of modafinil in pregnant women. Intrauterine growth restriction and spontaneous abortion have been reported in association with modafinil (a mixture of R- and S-modafinil) and armodafinil (the R-enantiomer of modafinil). Although the pharmacology of modafinil is not identical to that of the sympathomimetic amines, it does share some pharmacologic properties with this class. Certain of these drugs have been associated with intrauterine growth restriction and spontaneous abortions. Whether the cases reported with modafinil are drug-related is unknown. In studies of modafinil and armodafinil conducted in rats (modafinil, armodafinil) and rabbits (modafinil), developmental toxicity was observed at clinically relevant plasma exposures. Modafinil should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. 2b1af7f3a8